Learn more about how research and evidence-based clinical suggestions can help you identify and coordinate care for children with vision-related learning problems.

  • Dr. Dan Fortenbacher presents an Overview of Vision-Related Learning Problems
  • Vision and Learning by VisionHelp
  • Vision and Learning Go Hand in Hand (Live 5 WCSC)
  • WCSC) Curing Learning-Related Vision Problems | Dr. Vicky Vandervort | TEDxLincoln
  • Overlooking Our Vision | Cameron McCrodan | TEDxVictoria
  • The Hidden Link Between Vision and Learning with Author Wendy Rosen
  • 20/20 Isn't Everything - A Child's Vision is Critical to Learning

Mindsight - The COVD Blog

Exploring Vision Health and Learning

Visual Functional/Visual Efficiency Skills

This is the term used to describe myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness) and astigmatism. Hyperopia (farsightedness) is a measure of how much focusing effort is required to see clearly in the distance with a greater amount of effort needed for near visual tasks. Depending on how much effort is required to see clearly, hyperopia can result in blurred vision. Astigmatism is an optically induced blur for far and near objects and nearsightedness is when the eyes are in focus for close objects only.

This is a description of how clearly one sees detail. It is recorded as a fraction for example “20/20.” The top number represents the standard test distance 20 feet. The bottom number represents what is normally seen at that distance. For example 20/20 means at a distance of 20 feet a person sees what they should at 20 feet. 20/100 means at a distance of 20 feet they see what is normally seen at 100 feet. It does not reveal how effortless it is to see clearly, if both eyes work together, or if a person can understands what they are seeing.

The ability to move your eyes from spot to spot such as when you are reading or many activities in the classroom or fixate and follow such as when playing sports.

The ability to look close up, make it clear, sustain clarity over time and change focus rapidly from near objects to far ones.

Coordinating the two eyes so they work together at near and far effortlessly and with good depth perception.

Visual Perceptual Skills

This is the basic ability to see subtle differences amongst similar objects. This is the foundation for Pattern Recognition.

Seeing how different elements form a linear sequence or spatial array.

Being able to see a specific item amongst multiple items embedded in a cluttered background.

Knowing how objects would look when rotated or flipped or viewed from different points of view, especially in relationship to the environment and/or to other objects.

Knowledge of your own left and right, front and back, top and bottom.

Transferring laterality and visual spatial relationships into language applying it to directions such as right, left, top, bottom as well as transfering that to letter recognition such as recognizing a “b” from a “d” or “p” from a “q.”

Being able to determine what the whole item would be when only part of it is identifiable. Being able to come to logical conclusions based on limited information.

Visual Information Processing

To visually recall and express what has either been learned or experienced.

To be able to self generate “pictures” that have not necessarily involved a previous experience.

Being able to control and organize newly acquired information, to match previously learned information with current situations, and to plan and create future events or consider future possibilities – such as solutions to problems being able to understand the intention of the individual who used written language to express facts, ideas or intentions.

Visual Integration Skills

To visually direct the movement of the body, and/or to be able to move the body based on visual input.

Other Important Definitions

A sequence of neurosensory and neuromuscular activities individually prescribed and monitored by the doctor to develop, rehabilitate, and enhance visual efficiency skills and visual processing.

Vision: It's Impact on Reading, Attention and Academic Performance.

Dr. Fortenbacher PESI Visual Processing and Therapy Lecture Resource Links

Vision and Reading/Learning

Convergence Insufficiency

Academic Behaviors in Children with Convergence Insufficiency with and without Parent-Reported ADHD.

Treatment of Convergence Insufficiency in Childhood: A Current Perspective.

CONVERGENCE INSUFFICIENCY Academic Behaviors in Children with Convergence Insufficiency with and without Parent-Reported ADHD. OPTOM VIS SCI. 2009 Treatment of Convergence Insufficiency in Childhood: A Current Perspective. OPTOM VIS SCI 2009 Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatments for Symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency in Children

Vision Therapy/ Orthoptics for Symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency in Children: Treatment Kinetics.

Randomized Clinical Trial of Vision Therapy/Orthoptics versus Pencil Pushups for the Treatment of Convergence Insufficiency in Young Adults.

Oculomotor Dysfunctions, Their Remediation, and Reading-Related Problems in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

The Scientific Basis for and Efficacy of Optometric Vision Therapy in Nonstrabismic Accommodative and Vergence Disorders.

Effectiveness of Vision Therapy in School Children with Symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency.

Efficacy of Vision Therapy in Children with Learning Disability and Associated Binocular Vision Anomalies.

Vision Therapy in Adults with Convergence Insufficiency: Clinical and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures.

Visual and Binocular Status in Elementary School Children With a Reading Problem

Accommodative Dysfunction

To find a board certified doctor that provides Developmental Vision and Rehabilitation please visit the websites below.