Find access to a compendium of resources, including chairside evidence-based clinical recommendations and access to advanced training in developmental vision and rehabilitation for evaluating children and adults to ensure that they are prepared for optimal learning.

  • Dr. Dan Fortenbacher presents an Overview of Vision-Related Learning Problems
  • Vision and Learning by VisionHelp
  • Vision and Learning Go Hand in Hand (Live 5 WCSC)
  • Curing Learning-Related Vision Problems | Dr. Vicky Vandervort | TEDxLincoln
  • Overlooking Our Vision | Cameron McCrodan | TEDxVictoria
  • The Hidden Link Between Vision and Learning with Author Wendy Rosen
  • 20/20 Isn't Everything - A Child's Vision is Critical to Learning

Mindsight - The COVD Blog

Exploring Vision Health and Learning

These definitions are what developmental optometrists use during diagnosis and treatment.

The visual skills necessary for learning involve three main domains: Visual functional/visual efficiency skills, Visual integration skills and Visual perceptual/visual processing skills.

Visual Functional/Visual Efficiency Skills

This is the term used to describe myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness) and astigmatism. Hyperopia (farsightedness) is a measure of how much focusing effort is required to see clearly in the distance with a greater amount of effort needed for near visual tasks. Depending on how much effort is required to see clearly, hyperopia can result in blurred vision. Astigmatism is an optically induced blur for far and near objects and nearsightedness is when the eyes are in focus for close objects only.

This is a description of how clearly one sees detail. It is recorded as a fraction for example “20/20.” The top number represents the standard test distance 20 feet. The bottom number represents what is normally seen at that distance. For example 20/20 means at a distance of 20 feet a person sees what they should at 20 feet. 20/100 means at a distance of 20 feet they see what is normally seen at 100 feet. It does not reveal how effortless it is to see clearly, if both eyes work together, or if a person can understands what they are seeing.

The ability to move your eyes from spot to spot such as when you are reading or many activities in the classroom or fixate and follow such as when playing sports.

The ability to look close up, make it clear, sustain clarity over time and change focus rapidly from near objects to far ones.

Coordinating the two eyes so they work together at near and far effortlessly and with good depth perception.

Visual Perceptual Skills

This is the basic ability to see subtle differences amongst similar objects. This is the foundation for Pattern Recognition.

Seeing how different elements form a linear sequence or spatial array.

Being able to see a specific item amongst multiple items embedded in a cluttered background.

Knowing how objects would look when rotated or flipped or viewed from different points of view, especially in relationship to the environment and/or to other objects.

Knowledge of your own left and right, front and back, top and bottom.

Transferring laterality and visual spatial relationships into language applying it to directions such as right, left, top, bottom as well as transfering that to letter recognition such as recognizing a “b” from a “d” or “p” from a “q.”

Being able to determine what the whole item would be when only part of it is identifiable. Being able to come to logical conclusions based on limited information.

Visual Information Processing

To visually recall and express what has either been learned or experienced.

To be able to self generate “pictures” that have not necessarily involved a previous experience.

Being able to control and organize newly acquired information, to match previously learned information with current situations, and to plan and create future events or consider future possibilities – such as solutions to problems being able to understand the intention of the individual who used written language to express facts, ideas or intentions.

Visual Integration Skills

To visually direct the movement of the body, and/or to be able to move the body based on visual input.

Other Important Definitions

A sequence of neurosensory and neuromuscular activities individually prescribed and monitored by the doctor to develop, rehabilitate, and enhance visual efficiency skills and visual processing.

Vision: It's Impact on Reading, Attention and Academic Performance.

An in-depth look at the relationship of vision on reading and learning by the VisionHelp Group

Dr. Fortenbacher PESI Visual Processing and Therapy Lecture Resource Links

Applied Concepts Course at COVD Annual Meeting on Vision and Learning

Sanet Courses

OEP Courses Regional Clinical Seminars

The OEP Clinical Curriculum is comprised of 4 "core" courses which run throughout the year and around the world.

Vision and Reading/Learning

Convergence Insufficiency

Accommodative Dysfunction